Bitcoin exchanges now exempt from VAT tax in Spain

Bitcoin exchanges now exempt from VAT in SpainSpain’s General Directorate of Taxes (Dirección General de Tributos DGT) has announced it will treat all virtual currencies such as Bitcoin as financial payment methods and thus will be exempt from the VAT rate of 21%.

Previously treated as a commodity, Bitcoin users were often taxed twice for purchases using the crypto-currency, however now the recogntion as a ‘method of payment’ means it falls under the same category as cash and credit cards and won’t be subject to extra taxes. The products or services bought with Bitcoins will continue to be subject to their specific VAT rates of course.

Spain now joins the UK, Germany, France, Belgium and Finland in accepting Bitcoin as a payment method unlike the USA which still considers Bitcoin as a commodity and enforces the acceptance of Bitcoin as a viable transaction method. So, Spanish residents are free to buy and sell Bitcoin without paying extra tax, even if buying from EU countries which still tax Bitcoin.

With Spanish banks BankInter and BBVA investing in Bitcoin businesses, (such as Bitcoin wallet Coinbase and open source, peer to peer, Bitcoin exchange Coinffeine respectively), the Crypto Currency is gaining momentum and increasing it’s mainstream accessibility to the market.

However, the Spanish tax authority Agencia Estatal de Administración Tributaria (AEAT) are keeping a close eye on Bitcoin use, monitoring the Bitcoin flow, to ensure it’s not used for illicit purposes such as fraud and money laundering.

Please contact us at Spainwide to help you prepare your Declaracion de la Renta 2014 or to manage your tax and accounting obligations!


How to reduce your taxes in Spain by donating to charity

Charity Donations in Spain reduce Income and Corporate Tax

The Spanish Fundraising Association claims that 20% of Spanish residents give to charity, with almost 3.6 million regular donors, contributing €489 million in 2014 in Spain.

Far from the Spanish Third Sectors’ hay day of €825 million donations in 2007, the reduction in charitable contributions can be blamed on tough socio-economic factors causing: individual de-registrations, Government cuts in subsidies, and difficulties in securing funding- all having massive implications for NGOs and their fund-raising forecasting.

Individual and corporate donations have now become a big focus for charities in Spain. With average individual donations of €133 per year, and new efforts into Street Fundraising resulting in approximately one quarter of all new donors. NGOs persistence is paying off!

So, how can you reduce your taxes by donating to charity?

Recent fiscal changes regarding charitable donation have allowed a 50% tax credit for individual contributions up to €150 (up from 25% in 2014), increasing to 75% in 2016. These can vary, depending on the organisations themselves and which requirements they comply with.

Anything above €150 will benefit from a tax credit of 27.5% rising to 30% in 2016. Additionally, loyalty pays off with ongoing donations to the same charities benefiting from a 32.5% tax credit rising to 35% in 2016.

Donors should ask the charity for a certificate ‘certificado de donación’  to prove their charitable contributions and should fill out the Modelo 182.

There is also a 0.7% tax option available to Spanish taxpayers able to elect a voluntary additional donation to the Catholic church or a non-profit active in social action or cooperation.

Corporative Charitable Donations

For corporations, there is an improved 35% tax credit on the Taxable Base of donations for qualifying organisations, capped at 0.1% of the company’s turnover.

Additionally, long term collaborations with the same NGOs are encouraged to reach fiscal advantages and benefit from a higher tax credit of 37.5% rising to 40% in 2016.

How to reduce your taxes in Spain by donating to charity

Individual (IRPF)Up to €150 donated to one or various organisations25%50%75%
Individual (IRPF)€150+ donated to a new organisation25%
Individual (IRPF)€150+ and if during the two previous tax years donations have been made to the same non-profit for the same or higher amount.n/a32.5%35%
Company (Corporate Tax)If in past 2 years have not given to same NGO35%35%
Company (Corporate Tax)If in past 2 years have given to same NGOn/a37.5%40%

NB. Both individuals and corporations have a limited tax base of the deduction which cannot exceed 10% of the total taxable base for the period.

Please contact us at Spainwide to help you prepare your Declaracion de la Renta 2014 or to manage your tax and accounting obligations!

US Expats – Tax Filing Deadlines for 2015

US Expat Tax Deadlines 2015As US Expats, it´s important to take note of the typical deadlines which may be slightly different each year. Mark your calendar in advance of those deadlines and forward the needed information to your tax advisor by these dates.


  • April 15, 2015 – US tax filing deadline and due date for all taxes liabilities
  • June 15, 2015 – US tax abroad deadline for expats
  • June 30, 2015 – Foreign Bank Account Report Form (AKA FinCen 114) is due
  • October 15, 2015 – Final tax deadline for US tax abroad PROVIDED you have already applied for an extension

US Expat Tax Deadline of April 15th, 2015

Expats who usually file when residing in the US are accustomed to call April 15th ¨Tax Day¨. This situation changes slightly when you start residing outside of the US. In fact, generally, April 15th becomes your deadline, if you have received a Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement or a Form 1099 from work performed in the US in 2014. This special circumstance often affects recent expatriates.

Automatic Extensions for US Expats to June 15th, 2015

The IRS can be understanding too! Expats living abroad on a full time basis get a break from the tax authorities and get to file on June 15th, 2015. That automatic extension allows extra time to compile foreign tax information and data since reception of this information may vary from place to place.

Please note, this automatic extension until June 15th, 2015 is available for filing NOT for paying if there is tax due. Specifically, tax liabilities, if any, do not get the benefit of extension and will be payable at the latest on April 15th, 2015.

This, therefore, begs the question: How´s one supposed to know how much to pay? What we can recommend is to run a simulation of your return and pay the best estimate.

The reality is that the majority of US expatriates in countries where we do have clients rarely (to not say never) have owed taxes to the US. It usually happens either because the foreign jurisdiction has higher taxes or expatriates get to exclude up to roughly $100,000 of their Foreign Earned income from their US taxable income.

Requesting additional extension to file on October 15th, 2015.

Many things may happen and force the US expatriate to request an additional time to file: Missing documentation, missing income statements, need to meet the Physical Presence Test to qualify for the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion.

Ask your tax advisor to have US Federal Form 4868, Application for Automatic Extension of Time To File U.S. Individual Income Tax Return completed and sent so you get to extend your filing deadline to October 15th, 2015.

If you unfortunately do not have an expat CPA, there´s absolutely nothing wrong with extending your return filing date with the folks at Official Payments. For a fee of $5.00, you´ll be able to complete the process by yourself.

FBAR Deadline: June 30, 2015

Bank accounts with balance over $10,000 in the aggregate, at any point of the year, are required to be filed with the Department of Revenue under the Foreign Bank Account Reporting regime. This is an essential part of being compliant tax wise in the US.

The June 30th, 2015 deadline for FBAR filing cannot be extended. However, since the 2012 tax year, the US treasury now accepts FBARs electronically, making the deadline easier to abide by.

It is extremely important that you do not overlook this critical part of filing US tax abroad. Some classic misconceptions of the definition of ¨Foreign Account¨ include:

  • Brokerage, mutual funds and/or foreign trust: They need to be reported as they are considered Foreign Accounts
  • Joint accounts with Non-US spouse: They need to be reported.

Additional Questions?

Please make sure to contact us should you have any questions with regards to your US  Tax Filing, it would be our pleasure to assist you with getting this matter out of the way of your life as an expatriate!



How much IRPF and IVA should I be paying as a freelance worker in Spain?

Q. How much IRPF and IVA should I be paying as a freelance worker in Spain?


The IRPF (Impuesto sobre la Renta de las Personas Fisicas) is a progressive, direct income tax which is paid by your client as a withholding tax directly to the Spanish tax office (find out more here).

Currently, freelance workers or autonomos should include the IRPF rate of 19%, in the invoice (-19% of tax base) which is paid directly by the client (another registered freelancer or company) to the Spanish tax office.

IRPF in Spain 2015New autonomous workers are able to pay 9% IRPF during the first 3 years of self-employment, and all freelancers who earned less than €15,000 in the previous year will be subject to 15% IRPF.

NB. High earners in the first few years of operation would do better to pay 19% IRPF rather than 9% to avoid nasty surprises at the end of the fiscal year.


The VAT or IVA (Impuesto sobre el Valor Añadido) is an indirect tax paid by the final consumer ie. your client. The standard rate of VAT is 21% payable to you through your invoice (+21% VAT of total).

  • Reduced rate 10% : water, food, animal pharmaceutical products, private homes, hotels restaurants…
  • Additional reduced rate 4% : books, magazines, newspapers, academic materials, bread, milk, eggs, fruit, veg, pharmaceutical products for humans…

This money belongs to the Spanish tax office Hacienda and you will then pay the difference between VAT charged and VAT paid out to suppliers, services or products bought in relation to your business activities. That’s why it’s important to keep a record of your business costs.

Some services are not VAT applicable whereby you must denote: *exenta del impuesto por el artículo 20 de la Ley de IVA E.g. language classes, medicine, education, exports to countries outside the EU…. Find out more here and please consult a professional for specific cases.


Your accountant or gestor will submit your accounts to the tax office every three months to liquidate the IRPF and file the IVA. The yearly Declaracion de la Renta (carried out in March) will then conclude whether you have paid enough income tax compared to the withholding tax (IRPF) depending on a number of factors, and calculate total IVA, and bring your tax account up to date.

We recommend consulting a professional for specific matters and to analyse your individual situation feel free to contact us! If you’re already a Spainwide client remember you can contact us on +34 91 547 1254 or email us.


A Freelance Guide to Autonomo Expenses in Spain

Organise your receipts by month and category to facilitate managing your business expenses

Simplify your life and organise your receipts by month and category to facilitate managing your business expenses

Working as a freelance professional in Spain can be costly taking into account Social Security charges, IRPF (income tax) rates, accountant and advisor fees, not to mention transport and living expenses.

However, the Income Tax Return, filed quarterly and annually (by June 30 2015 for 2014 taxes), will gauge how much you’re taxed on your operating profit (income – costs) plus any personal deductions and exemptions so there is scope to reduce the taxable total by noting precisely all your costs and by keeping your detailed invoices.

Additionally your quarterly VAT bill can be reduced by providing information for which VAT you have paid out during that time period relating to your profession.

The System allows many deductible expenses so make sure you keep your invoices and contact us should you need help managing it.

1. Three reasons for keeping note of expenses or gastos

Firstly, as you are taxed on your profit, keeping a note of any costs will reduce your total taxable sum.

Secondly, the VAT you have paid for in purchasing goods or services can be taken off your quarterly VAT or IVA bill if you have charged VAT on your own invoices. It will be calculated as the total VAT you have charged out for your business minus any VAT you have paid for goods/services related to your business.

Thirdly, you may receive a surprise tax inspection letter from Hacienda requesting to see evidence of the calculations provided in the tax returns, so make sure you are organised.

2. Ensure expenses receipts include your name and NIE

Each invoice, receipt or ticket you are claiming as an expense must clearly show the following information:

  • Your name, NIE and address
  • Supplier’s name, address and business ID (CIF, NIF or NIE)
  • Date
  • Invoice Number
  • Description of the Goods or services
  • Tax base or base imponible
  • Amount and percentage of IVA and any other applicable taxes (e.g. IRPF)
  • Net amount

Make sure that you ask for a factura completa not simplificada. (Although small quantities eg. from a cafe may sometimes be included)

3. What counts as an expense?

Expenses are costs incurred as a result of your professional activities including:

Operating costs

  • Costs of goods related to your business needs: stock for physical goods, materials, office supplies, business cards, printer ink, stationery, office furniture, packaging etc.
  • Rent on your office, shop or other business premise (When you pay your rent the retenciones deducted are automatically paid to Hacienda on behalf of the landlord)
  • Utility bills on business premises: Heating, light, water and insurance bills are counted as expenses if you have a business premise
  • If you work from home and have a registered home office you can deduct a percentage of utility bills depending on the total proportion of space used for your business, usually around 30% capped at 50%. E.g. Your home is 90m sq and your home office is 9m sq you can deduct 10% of total bills.
  • Telephone and internet costs: if the connection or telephone line is used primarily for your freelance business it is deemed as a recoverable cost
  • Computer software, apps related to your profession
  • Conferences, courses and industry magazine subscriptions also count
  • Work clothes if you wear a uniform or other clothes bought specifically for work

Labour costs and Professional services

  • If you hire people to work for you or your clients their pay or fee is noted as a cost, and if they’re your employees the Social Security you pay for them too is also noted.
  • Accounting and Tax Services and any other professional service (lawyers, auditors, bankers, economists, consultants…) are also deductible costs
  • Advertising and promotional costs are also deducted

Administration costs

  • Social Security contributions and any other taxes related to your professional activity (IBI, IAE)
  • VAT (IVA) derived from purchases related to your professional activity (if applicable and within the prorata rule of charging out VAT yourself)

Transport costs

  • A car or van, plus the insurance, maintenance and service costs are 100% claimable as an expense if the vehicle has been bought particularly for the business with exclusive use and is necessary to carry out the work activity and therefore seen as a capital expense. E.g. Taxi driver, chauffeur, deliveries… not so much for driving to work to give classes. If the vehicle is also for personal use then this cannot be claimed at all (even proportionally). However you can claim up to 50% for VAT returns.
  • Petrol if using your personal or work car for a business trip. Make sure the receipt is in your name!
  • Car park tickets, NB the machines at the airport allow for a full receipt! And any car park tickets outside your registered province or comunidad. Parking fines are not deducted!
  • Other travel such as train, taxi, flights are expenses if you demonstrate it’s for business purpose (e.g. flights to Berlin for the Mobile App conference!) and the receipt’s in your name.

Entertaining costs

  • Restaurants, bars, cafés… If it’s with clients or business contacts and considered as a Public Relations expense it qualifies as a business expense and you should ask for the receipt in your name!
  • Food, hotel and travel costs can be deducted, though capped, if they have been incurred out of the community you are registered in.

NB. If the expense item is more than €600 this will be treated as an investment for which there are special rules regarding the deductibility of the depreciation value to be calculated.

4. Keep organised and ask for help!

Every self-employed worker has a method that suits them best, but organising invoices by month and category may be a straight-forward way to begin.

Many deductions depend on your specific profession and other personal circumstances, so it is recommended to hire a trusted accountant or business advisor who can help you in these matters. Spainwide has been helping freelance and self-employed professionals for 20 years so do not hesitate to give us a call.

Remember to keep all your detailed receipts for the quarterly VAT (IVA) returns and annual income tax return (declaracion de la renta) and we can help lower your tax bill. Call us on the number above or send us an email to see how we can help you manage your freelance business.

Spain leads EU’s SME Initiative for cheaper credit worth €3.2 billion

EU SME initiative signed in Spain small medium business

Spain is the first EU member state to sign the SME initiative increasing lending to small and medium sized businesses and reducing risk for banks.

Spain is the first EU country to sign up to the ‘SME initiative’ offering €3.2 billion worth of cheaper loans to Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs). Companies with less than 250 employees will be able to take advantage of this new loan in the coming few months – likely to be available by Summer 2015.

EU’s New Investment Plan for Europe

As part of the EU’s New Investment Plan for Europe, The Spanish regional governments will reallocate 800 million euros available from the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) estimated to quadruple to €3.2 billion over the next three years.

Other EU member states are encouraged to follow Spain’s signing to this initiative and other innovative financial instruments, in favour of more traditional loans and grants.

Supporting SMEs in Spain and Europe

Spanish private sector employment is made up of 74% SMEs (EU average is 66%), and for all new jobs created in Spain, 85% have been from smaller companies indicating the importance of SMEs in Spain.

Reduced Risk for banks

Different from traditional grants, the EU initiative provides guarantees (up to 80% according to Hacienda) to banks and financial institutions to reduce risks linked to new projects. Any defaults will be part-covered by various partners : the Spanish contribution from their ESIF, then by the EU budget, then by the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group.

The SME Initiative thus hopes to create a stronger multiplier effect than traditional credits allowing investment and growth through cheaper and increased lending as well as an estimated 6,400 new jobs.

 Do you own a small or medium sized business in Spain and need business guidance or any of our accounting, tax, finance or marketing services?

Contact us on the number above or send us an email to see how we can help your business

Spain passes new law to combat illegal fishing and rings in praise from NGOs

New Spanish law 33/2014 has marked tougher penalties for Spanish citizens involved in illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing anywhere in the world.

EUU IUU regulation, Greenpeace, spain

GreenPeace activists attempting to stop boats at European harbours from fishing illegally. The estimated value of illegally caught fish in the EU prior to their 2010 IUU regulations was approximately €1.1 billion

As Europe’s largest fishing member state (followed by UK, France and Italy) Spain represents 20% of Europe’s fishing capacity and employs the most number of people in the fishing industry.

This an important step for Spain to translate the EU’s 2010 IUU fishing regulation into legislation allowing authorities to act against Spanish citizens benefiting economically from illegal fishing even under ‘flags of convenience’ or owned or operated by shell companies in tax havens, anywhere in the world.

The estimated value of illegally caught fish in the EU prior to their 2010 IUU regulations was approximately €1.1 billion. The 2010 regulation aims to keep the EU market clean of illegally caught fish by requiring “catch certificates” for seafood imports and exports.

Recent reports of pirate fishing in the Southern Ocean off New Zealand have linked two of the vessels to a Spanish company in NorthWestern Spain – controversially receiving EU and Spanish fishing subsidies – the new law will allow authorities to take action against the company if proven.

Welcomed by the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF), WWF, Oceana and the Pew trust – NGOs working together to ensure effective implementation of the EU’s regulation to put an end to pirate fishing – they hope that Spain’s new law will encourage other member states to promptly follow and legislate the regulation to climb one step closer to clamping down on illegal fishing.

“The introduction of this law reinforces Spain’s commitment to fight illegal fishing and those citizens benefiting from it. All EU member states should follow Spain’s lead and effectively implement this key element of the EU IUU regulation” Steve Trent, executive director of EJF.

Globally, the numbers of illegal fish sold in a shop or restaurant is massive. US research group The Pew Charitable Trusts, estimates that one in five fish sold in a shop or served in a restaurant has been caught illegally: 26 million tons of fish a year, worth more than €20 billion.

Culture in Spain January Roundup

Cultlure Spain

The new year begins on a high note as opera is projected live, the Guggenheim celebrates its evolution and Barcelona offers children a magical beginning to 2015

The opera makes its way into your heart this new year thanks to London’s Royal Opera House. The esteemed leading opera company, centered in the iconic Covent Garden Theatre, will project its performances of timeless works such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake and Giacomo Puccini’s La Bohème Live in cinemas in more than 40 countries. Scheduled for transmission are seven operas and four ballets with the opera Andrea Chénier by Umberto Giordano leading the new year on January 29th. This Opera, based on the life of French poet André Chénier (1762-1794) who was executed during the French revolution, will be simultaneously projected at the Palafox Theater in Madrid, Luchana 15. For more information on upcoming performances and shows in Spain visit


The Royal Opera House showing marvellous works in cinemas all over Spain

The Guggenheim in Bilbao celebrates 20 years of collaborative exhibits with “The Art of Our Time. Master pieces of the Guggenheim Collection”. This exhibit evokes the Museum’s inaugural showing in 1997, reflecting the successful partnership between the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, which has become a point of reference both nationally and internationally. The works of Vasily Kandinsky, Jeff Koons and Anish Kapoor, whose work is shown in the exterior of the building, are included in this visual retrospective. For more info click here.

Cristina Iglesias Sin título (Celosía II), 1997 Madera, resina y polvo de bronce 260 x 350 x 300 cm Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa

Cristina Iglesias – Sin Título (Celosía II), 1997
Madera, resina y polvo de bronce 260 x 350 x 300 cm
Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa

Last but not least, Barcelona hosts a magical beginning to the new year with its “Magia Kids” theatre event at the Teatreneu Theatre in Barcelona where the “best magicians” make Saturday and Sunday afternoons of this month magical. The performances suited for all ages, include “tricks that will transport you into a world of illusion”. For more information click here.

Magia Kids Barcelona Teatro Infantil

Magia Kids in Barcelona is sure to leave your kids mystified!

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How to reduce your US taxes

I hear it and read it so often: The US tax law is ‘convoluted, unclear, full of double negatives, and incredibly punitive with penalties and interests’.

How to reduce your US Taxes

There’s always a way to reduce your US taxes

Some clients have previously been told by other advisers there was nothing they could do to reduce their taxes because their income was too high, or, have been advised to make LESS MONEY to reduce their taxes.

My professional goal, is for my clients with whichever income to not feel constrained because of the tax law and live fully while reaching their financial objectives.

In fact, there is always an opportunity to reduce your taxes – in spite of your income.

Yes, the tax laws are there for your benefit.

Most western countries permit many tax deductions, credits and other benefits which can save you, the US expatriate taxpayers, a sizeable amount every year.

These tax benefits are generally reduced or eliminated (phased out) when the taxpayer´s income reaches a certain level. Consequently, many taxpayers get overpowered by the perceived difficulties to get around these limitations legally.

The knowledge on how to legally overcome these boundaries is what makes the difference between a tax clerk and a tax consultant.

Own your wealth strategy

Your financial profile and tax strategy go hand in hand. Reducing your taxes augments your cash flow and then your wealth. It’s a prescription that can be reiterated over and over again.

The source of your income is critical to determine how it is taxed: at a preferential rate while some deductions can be matched to some type of income.

When your income is elevated, it is paramount to determine where your income comes from. This is usually accomplished by fine-tuning your wealth strategy.

Have more taxpayers

You can shift your income – legally – to other taxpayers. The IRS will not allow to give your income away solely in order to reduce or avoid paying taxes. However, there are times when income shifting can match your tax, wealth and personal goals.

I had, in the past, clients with businesses hiring their children. This shift of income from you to your kids may bring your income under a certain limit so you can take advantage of certain tax benefits. In many cases, the children were in a lower tax bracket, and my clients shifted their income out of the higher tax rate into the lower one.

This same notion of income shift can be accomplished by adding an entity to your business or investing arrangement that pays its own tax.

I said it, and I´ll say it again, there is always an opportunity to reduce your taxes – in spite of your income. Tax season has begun already so file early and be on top of your taxes this year!

Please do not hesitate to contact us should you have any questions, and we look forward to helping you make the most of your income while dealing with the IRS

Owning a Dog in Spain

Dogs in Spain

5.5 million dog owners in Spain – life’s good, even in the city!

With more than 5 million dogs in Spain, it’s good to know there are plenty of things to do with your hairy friend.

According to Spain’s National Association of Pet Food Makers (ANFAAC) there were 5,400,000 registered dogs in Spain in 2013 and as of 2014 that number is estimated to have risen to 5.5 million.

So what can we do with our dogs?

Well, according to the Eroski Consumer Department, dog owners in Spain spend between 700 and 1,500 euros annually towards the care and maintenance of their dogs (not counting the money spent on canine accessories which has surpassed the 300 million euro mark). Hence it’s good to know there are activities you can do with your dog, that not only will not break the bank, but will greatly benefit you both.

In Madrid, you have the option of taking in some culture while you spend time with your dog. You can leaf through books at the Casa del Libro (House of the Book) or the multi-faceted Panta Rhei bookstore. For those interested in art exhibits, you can take a stroll to the Fresh Gallery or the New Gallery; both dog-friendly art spaces where you can take in an exhibit while spending time with your pet. In addition, almost all terraces in Madrid are dog friendly, so you can catch up with an old friend while giving your dog some fresh air. You can also do brunch with your pet at the very dog friendly Cafe Federal in the Plaza de las Comendadoras in Malasaña bordering the Conde Duque area.

For those who love the outdoors, Madrid’s beautiful Retiro Park is always an excellent option for spending quality time with your pet. Take a stroll through its forested trails into the duck lake, play a game of fetch or run with your pet; all of which is considered exercise which will in turn help alleviate stress, improve your health and strengthen the bond with your pet.

Barcelona also has many beautiful parks and natural reserves in it’s surrounding areas that are perfect for dogs. The LLac Petit (small lake) of Terrassa, is only 30 mins away from Barcelona and is considered the ideal place for canine excursions since it’s not overly populated and is usually visited by families, fishermen and mushroom pickers. Another popular dog point is the Santa Fe Lake in the Montseny Natural Reserve Park. The Lake is surrounded by heavy forest and retains water all year around. At 50 kms from the city, It’s considered the perfect place to combine trekking with relaxation. For more information on dog parks and activities in Spain visit and

However, no matter where or how you decide to enjoy your time with your pet make sure both you and it are always cared for. If physical activity is on the agenda make sure your dog is older than 12 months of age as it can be harmful to its development if you overexert it at a young age and no matter what the activity is make sure to always stay well hydrated. That goes for both you and your pet.

If you’re bringing your dog to Spain from overseas please check out our Guidelines to keep in mind when bringing your dog to Spain.

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